All about swine flu
Swine influenza was first proposed to be a disease related to human influenza during the 1918 flu pandemic, when pigs became sick at the same time as humans. The first identification of an influenza virus as a cause of disease in pigs occurred about ten years later, in 1930. For the following 60 years, swine influenza strains were almost exclusively H1N1. Then, between 1997 and 2002, new strains of three different subtypes and five different genotypes emerged as causes of influenza among pigs in North America. In 1997-1998, H3N2 strains emerged. These strains, which include genes derived by reassortment from human, swine and avian viruses, have become a major cause of swine influenza in North America. Reassortment between H1N1 and H3N2 produced H1N2. In 1999 in Canada, a strain of H4N6 crossed the species barrier from birds to pigs, but was contained on a single farm.
The H1N1 form of swine flu is one of the descendants of the strain that caused the 1918 flu pandemic. As well as persisting in pigs, the descendants of the 1918 virus have also circulated in humans through the 20th century, contributing to the normal seasonal epidemics of influenza. However, direct transmission from pigs to humans is rare, with only 12 cases in the U.S. since 2005. Nevertheless, the retention of influenza strains in pigs after these strains have disappeared from the human population might make pigs a reservoir where influenza viruses could persist, later emerging to reinfect humans once human immunity to these strains has waned.
Swine flu has been reported numerous times as a “zoonosis” in humans, usually with limited distribution, rarely with a widespread distribution. Outbreaks in swine are common and cause significant economic losses in industry, primarily by causing stunting and extended time to market. For example, this disease costs the British meat industry about £65 million every year
2009 outbreak in humans
The H1N1 viral strain implicated in the 2009 flu pandemic among humans often is called "swine flu" because initial testing showed many of the genes in the virus were similar to influenza viruses normally occurring in North American swine. But further research has shown that the outbreak is due to a new strain of H1N1 not previously reported in pigs.
In late April, Margaret Chan, the World Health Organization's director-general, declared a "public health emergency of international concern" under the rules of the WHO's new International Health Regulations when the first cases of the H1N1 virus were reported in the United States. Following the outbreak, on May 2, 2009, it was reported in pigs at a farm in Alberta, Canada, with a link to the outbreak in Mexico. The pigs are suspected to have caught this new strain of virus from a farm worker who recently returned from Mexico, then showed symptoms of an influenza-like illness. These are probable cases, pending confirmation by laboratory testing.
The new strain was initially described as an apparent reassortment of at least four strains of influenza A virus subtype H1N1, including one strain endemic in humans, one endemic in birds, and two endemic in swine. Subsequent analysis suggested it was a reassortment of just two strains, both found in swine. Although initial reports identified the new strain as swine influenza (i.e., a zoonosis originating in swine), its origin is unknown. Several countries took precautionary measures to reduce the chances for a global pandemic of the disease. The 2009 swine flu has been compared to other similar types of influenza virus in terms of mortality: "in the US it appears that for every 1000 people who get infected, about 40 people need admission to hospital and about one person dies". There are fears that swine flu will become a major global pandemic in the winter months, with many countries planning major vaccination campaigns.
Who is at highest risk from H1N1 swine flu?
Most U.S. cases of H1N1 swine flu have been in older children and young adults. It's not clear why, and it's not clear whether this will change.
But certain groups are at particularly high risk of severe disease or bad outcomes if they get the flu:
>Young children, especially those under 12 months of age
>Elderly people are at high risk of severe flu disease. But relatively few swine flu cases >have been seen in people over age 65.
>People with cardiovascular conditions (except high blood pressure)
>People with liver problems
>People with kidney problems
>People with blood disorders, including sickle cell disease
>People with neurologic disorders
>People with neuromuscular disorders
>People with metabolic disorders, including diabetes
>People with immune suppression, including HIV infection and medications that >suppress the immune system, such as cancer chemotherapy or anti-rejection drugs for >transplants
>Residents of a nursing home or other chronic-care facility
People in these groups should seek medical care as soon as they get flu symptoms.
A striking number of adults who developed severe swine flu complications have been morbidly obese. However, obesity itself does not seem to be the issue. The vast majority of extremely obese people suffer respiratory problems and/or diabetes, which seem to be the underlying reason for their severe flu complications.
How does swine flu spread? Is it airborne?
The new swine flu virus apparently spreads just like regular flu. You could pick up germs directly from droplets from the cough or sneeze of an infected person, or by touching an object they recently touched, and then touching your eyes, mouth, or nose, delivering their germs for your own infection. That's why you should make washing your hands a habit, even when you're not ill. Infected people can start spreading flu germs up to a day before symptoms start, and for up to seven days after getting sick, according to the CDC.
The swine flu virus can become airborne if you cough or sneeze without covering your nose and mouth, sending germs into the air. Ferret studies suggest that swine flu spreads less easily by small, airborne droplets than does seasonal flu. But it does spread by this route, and it may begin to spread even more readily as the new virus fully adapts to humans.
The new swine flu virus is a human virus spread by people and not by pigs. The only way to get the new swine flu is from another person.
If I think I have swine flu, what should I do? When should I see my doctor?
If you have flu symptoms, stay home, and when you cough or sneeze, cover your mouth and nose with a tissue. Afterward, throw the tissue in the trash and wash your hands. That will help prevent your flu from spreading
If you have only mild flu symptoms, you do not need medical attention unless your illness gets worse. But if you are in one of the groups at high risk of severe disease, contact your doctor at the first sign of flu-like illness. In such cases, the CDC recommends that people call or email their doctor before rushing to an emergency room.
But there are emergency warning signs.
Children should be given urgent medical attention if they
>Have fast breathing or trouble breathing
>Have bluish or gray skin color
>Are not drinking enough fluid
>Are not waking up or not interacting
>Have severe or persistent vomiting
>Are so irritable that the child does not want to be held
>Have flu-like symptoms that improve but then return with fever and a worse cough
>Have fever with a rash
>Have a fever and then have a seizure or sudden mental or behavioral change.
Adults should seek urgent medical attention if they have:
>Difficulty breathing or shortness of breath
>Pain or pressure in the chest or abdomen
>Severe or persistent vomiting
>Flu-like symptoms that improve, but then come back with worsening fever or cough
Keep in mind that your doctor will not be able to determine whether you have swine flu, but he or she may take a sample from you and send it to a state health department lab for testing to see if it's swine flu.
Is there a vaccine against the new swine flu virus?
It's in the works. Vaccines are being made in large quantities. Clinical tests began in August 2009. Depending on how long federal officials wait for the results of these tests, millions of doses of swine flu vaccine could be ready as soon as September 2009, with more vaccine becoming available each month thereafter.
Source : Someone @ Facebook.
Re: All about swine flu
onkerei ai oboshta Allah re ai sob ki............doa kori shushtho hon.........
"Football For Hope"
Re: All about swine flu
Amaro onek jor,matha betha,gola betha,thanda lagse aro onek kichui..KI korbo bujhtasina :S
Re: All about swine flu
Ajke valo lagtese kisuta.
Sordi ase.Khasi ase.
But feeling much better.
and yeah there is vaccine.
will be in bd in about two monthes.
Re: All about swine flu
Health minister to bole enough vaccine ase, over 30 Millions. Parle export kore.
Re: All about swine flu
Originally Posted by CyberKiller
Actually you heard wrong.
He said there is Cure like--Anti-bacterial and viral agent.after infection these can be taken as for Curity.
Vaccine will be in BD in about two monthes.
Last Post: August 31st, 2009, 20:09
By Walking Death in forum Tech News
Last Post: May 6th, 2009, 02:27
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